Monday, October 7, 2013

The American Civil War (1861-1865) vs The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

Abraham Lincoln, defender of the Union of the United States. Betwenn the division of the country or the Civil War. Lincoln (1809-1865) chose the Civil War.


It is insistently repeated that the cause of the American Civil War was due to slavery. It's hard to believe that 20 million Americans, where slavery had been abolished, rose one morning in 1861 and embarked on a war that would, result in 360,000 dead and over 275,200 wounded with the sole purpose of liberating the black people in the South.The Confederates, with a population of 10 million, had 258,200 dead and over 138,000 wounded.

Slavery called a"peculiar Institution "in the Southern States, was a deciding factor, but it is easy to argue that it included other political events, such as the increased of abolitionist states, as well as the disparity of existing structures and the rivalry between the industrialist and liberated North and the agricultural South with slavery. The North and The South in 1800 had the same Industrial Production. In 1861 the North had twelve times the Railways and similar amount of Industrial Production. and to preserve this Industrial Production, high tarifs were changed on imported products from England and France.

The anti-slavery sentiment in the North had grown by lawsuits like Dred Scott, a slave in the South without the right to gain freedom if their owner was moving north.

The famous story. Uncle Tom's Cabin, which reached an incredible 300,000 copies, written by Harriet Becher Stowe.Where Stowe narrates the sufferings of the slave Eliza, who fled across a frozen river, chased by hounds, to avoid being separated from her baby and sold "downstream of the river" to perform hard labor in the cotton fields.

Lincoln. Senate candidate and U.S. President

In 1858 When Lincoln accepted his appointment to the Senate,he reflected, the dilemma of a young nation with a "divided house", that could not stay "half slave and half free". Black slave were merchandise. Therefore, they were not citizens of USA.

Lincoln advanced the tragedy of the civil war when he said, "it will be one thing or another". There was no chance to attain an agreement suitable for both parties. The conflict would happen. He was elected president in in 1860. His election was the signal for seven southern slave states declared their secession from the Union and form the Confederacy. He had never called for the abolition of slavery before the Civil War.

On april 15, 1861 : An Executive Order issued by President Lincoln, through his authority as commander-in-chief, declared that the Southern States were insurgents, and stating that the use of force to reintegrate them into the Union was Legal. The Union Army consisted of 16,000 soldiers, Lincoln ordered troops to be mobilize in a massive scale of 75,000 men willing to reestablish the Union. And the Civil War started. USA had 31 millions inhabitants.

 In his Speech in the Congress on July 4, 1861 , when the war had began. Lincoln stated the need for National Unity. He considered that the war had the aim to preserve the Union of the Nation and also the Survival of Democracy.

Abraham Lincoln in August 1862 stated that he wished all men could be free, emphasizing " If I could save the nation without freeing one slave, I would, if I could save it by freeing them all,  I would and if I could do it by freeing some and others do not ... not hesitate ".

The tragedy triggered the secession. Lincoln and Congress decided to preserve the unity of the nation.
Four days after the triumph of Union soldiers in Antietan. September 21, 1862. Lincoln addressed his cabinet members to tell them that, it was time to enact the Proclamation of the Emancipation. By this provision the slaves who were in the United States would be free for all effects.

The Gettysburg Address. On November 19, 1863 . Pennsylvania.The History

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought between June 30 and July 3, 1863. The Confederate Army consisted of 77,000 men suffered 28,000 casualties either killed, wounded or missing. The Federal army with 22,000 casualties with a total strength of 93,000 men, were also serious, but they were more bearable. Like in Antietam When General Lee was in no hurry to leave the battlefield, nor to give the impression that hi was retreating. Staying there the rest of this fateful day
Union soldiers killed in the battlefield of Gettysburg, photographed on July 5, 1863

On November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln spoke at the dedication of the Soldiers´ National Cementery in Gettysburg Pennsilvania. His speech clarified the Union ended the war with incondicional surrender: His reason was to not just to reunite the nation but to complete the work of our nation´s founders with started by making this nation, "where all men were created equal". Lincoln´s speech can be found in the south chamber of the Lincoln Memorial.

The Speech

"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created iqual. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.

We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that  field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that should do this.

But in larger sense, we can not dedicate - we can not consacrate - we can not hallow - this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, not long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from thes honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that goverment of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth ."

"U.S. Congress, at the request of Abraham Lincoln, before the Civil War ended, during the Battle of Petersburg, voted for the Equal Status Act of the different races, which the Congress passed with a majority of two thirds thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution (See The Lincoln movies)

Thirteenth Amendment

Section 1:
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2:

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. "

The U.S. Congress approved the Thirteenth Amendment on January 31, 1865, during the siege of Vicksburg for two thirds of the Congressmen, before the end of the Civil War. It was ratified by two thirds of the States on December 6, 1865. The Mississippi State ratified it in 1995.

On April 15, 1865. Lincoln died at the age of 56 years, 2 months and 3 days old,  because of a shot fired by the actor John Wilkes Booth, during the performance of the Musical, "Our American Cousin" at Ford Theater in Washington DC.
Lincoln's vigil took place at the Guest House Petersen's, opposite the Ford Theatre, when he died, everyone knelt around the bed and prayed. When they got up the Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton said: << Now he belongs to the eternity >>

JOHN F. KENNEDY. (1917-1963).  35Th President of the United States.

In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi, but was prevented from entering. Attorney General Robert Kennedy responded by sending 400 federal marshals, while President Kennedy reluctantly sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent.[203] The Ole Miss riot of 1962 left two dead and dozens injured, but Meredith did finally enroll in his first class. The instigating subculture at the Old Miss riot and at many other racially ignited events, was the Ku Klux Klan.[204] On November 20, 1962, Kennedy signed Executive Order 11063, prohibiting racial discrimination in federally supported housing or "related facilities".[205]

President Kennedy's Civil Rights Address, June 11, 1963
On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending. Wallace moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbachand the Alabama National Guard, which had just been federalized by order of the President. That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio, launching his initiative for civil rights legislation—to provide equal access to public schools and other facilities, and greater protection of voting rights.[209][210] His proposals became part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

BARAK OBAMA. (1961- ). 45Th.  President of the United States. 

Commander in Chief: The Thanksgiving Day, 2011, President Obama spent part of the day to call personally to thank American soldiers serving in Iraq and Afghanistan. The snapshot shows an image of a Commander in Chief with a casual style but steeped in the Oval Office sobriety. - U.S.

Obama solidarity. The White House released this photograph in which we could see the President on the Rosa Parks' bus, African American activist arrested in 1955 for refusing to sit in the rear seats reserved for blacks. A symbol that sums up the political narrative of Barack Obama: Reclaiming Civil Rights Movement.

There were 3 million inhabitans  in the United States in 1780. There were 31 million in 186. There are 310 million in 2013.

George Washington  February 11, 1731 – December 14, 1799) was the first  was the first President of the United States (1789–1797).

Abraham Lincoln. (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

Barak Obama born August 4, 196, is the 44th and current Presidente of the United States, the first African American to hold the office. Born in Honolulu. Hawai. Obama is graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School.

The American Civil War (1861-1865)

The United States 152 years ago had a Civil War. The North against the South because of the disparity of existing structures and the rivalry between the industrial North and agricultural South and slavery. Slavery was an important factor. Only the state of Virginia was divided into two States. Virginia with the Confederacy. Capital Richmond and West Virginia with the Union. Capital Charleston.

Abolitionist. Capital Washington fought for the Union. There were 20 million people in more than 2 million square miles in 18 states.

The Southern Confederate States. Capital Richmond struggled for separation to form an independent nation. There were 10 million people in more than 2 ½ million square miles in 15 states.
The map shows the states abolitionists states (18). the United Confederate States of America (15)

The anti-slavery sentiment had grown tremendously in the North, increased by lawsuits Dred Scott, the fugitive slave law or narratives such as "Uncle Tom's Cabin."

On the Judicial Process on Dred Scott in the who fought a slave to gain freedom by their owner for moving to a free state, and the owner to keep the property regardless of their residence. The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was black, was merchandize, and therefore was not a citizen of the United States . He would still be a slave.

The Fugitive slave law. Allowed armed men from the Southern states to cross into the northern states, capture and punish blacks or whites who help them. The fugitive slave law downloading the full weight of the law. An black slave accused of being an escaped slave. An affidavit of a slave owner or his representative was considered suficient proof. The black had no rights.

Commissioners had the right to get help from local police chiefs and deputy chiefs and set fines of $ 1,000 on those who refused to cooperate.

The State of Maryland made a standing offer of $ 10,000 for the arrest in Pennsylvania, Quaker Thomas Garrett. Promoter of the "Underground Railroad" a system of routes and stops to move blacks from South to North. He was ruined by a previous fine but continued his work. Thomas Garret helped secure the release of 2,700 slaves.

The people of the slave states were furious at what they considered an open conspiracy to deprive them of their property. They thought that as long as there was the Underground Railroad, blacks would feel constantly tempted to escape or rebel.

Meanwhile a serial novel published in a newspaper abolitionist had much more influence on the antislavery sentiment that everything they said newspapers or politicians. story "Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life among the lowly."

Inspired by the fugitive slave law. Publication of the famous Uncle Tom's Cabin reached an incredible 300,000 copies. The author Harriet Beecher Stowe showed an individual feelings, the humanity of a number of slaves in a society with an unhealthy system. Some owners of slaves were described very favorably, but the dominant image was that of the villainous Simon Legree (described as originating in free states).

Millions of people cried the suffering of the slave Eliza, who across a frozen river chased by a group of armed men to avoid being separated from her baby to be sold "down the river" to perform hard labor in the cotton fields. Readers also cried for the noble slave Uncle Tom who is flogged to death.

The book increased the number of abolicionist everywhere. Slaveholders were hated and despised. In 1850 the United States continued to grow and had about thirty million inhabitants, more than one and a half, more
than Britain.
When Stowe met Abraham Lincoln in 1862 (during the Civil War), the greeting then President of the United States was : "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war!" - "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war!" (in fact, Harriet measured about 1.50 m).

Abraham Lincoln, champion of the Union, integration and abolition of slavery in the United States. He was the XVI President of the United States (1861-1865). General Ulysses S. Grant. Chief of the Union army. He was the Eighteenth President of the Union (1869 - 1867) 

Sherman's March to the Sea

Like Grant, Sherman was convinced that the strategic, economic and psychological Confederacy to wage war definitely had to be destroyed so that the fight came to an end. Thus, Sherman thought that the Union had to drive the campaign as a war of conquest and employ scorched earth tactics to break the backbone of the Confederacy.

This campaign began following the victories of Gettysburg and Vicksburg in mid-1863 the Union troops had a chance to launch a major offensive from the state of Tennessee to Georgia, in the heart of the territory of the Confederate States.

The General nordista left on May 7, 1864 from Ringgold, about 20 miles south of Chattanooga, heading a huge army consisting of 100,000 men , which had over 20,000 animals to transport supplies. Sherman followed the railway line Western & Rail Road, faced the Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston in command of 50,000 men , placing major obstacles in the long journey of 200 miles to get to Atlanta . November 16, 1864. Atlanta, important communications center , was converted into a fortified city, forcing people to evacuate the city. Atlanta had 15,000 inhabitants.

After the fall of Atlanta in November 1864, Sherman ordered the evacuation of the city after burn it and destroy it. When the city council appealed to her general to rescind the order on the grounds that it would cause serious hardship to women, elderly, children and people who had no responsibility in the conduct of the war, Sherman sent a response in which he justified his acting on the belief that lasting peace would be possible only with the restoration of the Union, and so he was determined to do whatever is necessary and in his power to crush the rebellion:

You can not qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you can not civilize, and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and convictions that people can pour over them.

(...) If the United States allows a division now, it will not stop and will continue until we reach the same fate of Mexico, which is eternal war

(...) I want peace, and I think that can only be reached through union and war, and I will always lead the war in order to early success and perfect.
Mayor General William T. ShermanPortrait by Matew Brady 1864 The "ties" of Sherman The "ties" of Sherman

Savannah Campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta , Georgia , on November 16 and ended With The capture of the port of Savannah on December 21.

A long road of 240 miles. His forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, infrastructure , and civilian property and disrupted the South 's economy and its transportation networks. Sherman's bold move of operating Deep Within enemy territory and without supply lines is Considered to be revolutionary in the annals of war .

The General Sherman quantified damages. Military Infrastructure: $20 million . Private Properties: $180 million. The total U.S. budget in 1861 was $70 million.

Destruction of Columbia . After reaching the Atlantic in Savannah , Sherman turned to the north to cross the Carolinas. His troops had retained their aggressiveness against South Carolina , a state that led to the secession. The accumulated resentment against the instigators of the Southern rebellion , burst to take to the capital, Columbia . A long journey of 140 miles.

Columbia was totally burnt and destroyed , both sides accused each other of causing such a disaster, as in Atlanta .

Sherman left Columbia on February 1, crossed Wilmington, Charleston, Fayetteville and Goldsboro , reaching Perry Ville, near Goldsboro on April 14, 1865. More than 500 miles

War is Hell . War is Hell is the definition of General Sherman.

General Sherman's march totaled over 1,000 miles. The army advanced in two columns separate 60 miles.


Harriet Beecher Stowe y general Robert E. Lee

General Robert E. Lee: General in the Confederated Army. Commanding General of the land and naval forces of Virginia. Years of service 1829-1865 (1861 in Confederate Army). After the war, sought vainly official amnesty. He accepted the presidency of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia) in 1865, a school that offered classes of business, journalism and Spanish.

Harriet Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 hasta July 1, 1896) was an American abolicionist an author. Her novel Uncle Tom´s Cabin, (1852) was a representation of the life of African Americans under Slavery.

General Ulysses S. Grant. Chief of the Union army. He was the Eighteenth President of the United States. (1869-1877)

Abraham Lincoln won the election for President of the United States in 1860. in the eighteen free states and lost in the fifteen slave states. Lincoln never spoke of the liberation of the slaves, but was opposed to slavery. Governor Gist, of South Carolina announced that if Lincoln won the election would be separated from the Union.

The signing of the treaty of cessión of Alaska on March 30 of 1867. From left to right: Robert S. Chew, William H. Seward (Secretary of State), William Hunter, Mr. Bodisco, Eduard de Soeckl, Charles Sumner an Frederick W.Seward.

Thirteen southern states seceded from the Union. Lincoln and Congress decided to preserve the unity of the nation. In the year 1860. U.S. had 30 million people during the civil war killed more than 600,000 combatants killed in action, wounded and missing. There were no murders in the rear on both sides (360,000 dead in the Union),

After the war, there was only a trial against the head of Andersonville Military Prison, where 12,000 prisoners died, of the 50,000 prisoners of war. He was tried and hanged in front of the Capitol in Washington in 1865
Appomattox Court House is a historic village located south of the state of Virginia in the United States. It was the site of the surrender of Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, at the end of the American Civil War.


Catalonia and Basque Country.  The Problem of Spain from 1640

The Franco-Spanish War(1635-1659) was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War

Reigned in Spain Philip IV. and France Louis XIII. Spain lost the war and France seized the Roussillon.

Spain has a problem with Catalonia (Basque Country) since 1640, which gave beginning with the rebellion of Els Segadors (in English The Reapers) is the official anthem of the autonomous community of Catalonia.

The Reapers took over the city of Barcelona for three days, moved not only by his rage against the demands of royal government, mobilization and permanence of the royal army, at war with France, but also against the Catalan feudal system, since, from the outset, the rebels had attacked wealthy citizens and their properties.

This was, therefore, also a civil war between Catalans . The death toll was a total of between 12 and 20 deaths, mostly royal officials, including the Viceroy, Dalmau de Queralt, Count of Santa Coloma.

Thus began the friction between Catalonia and the rest of Spain.

In France no problems with Catalan or Basque and Spain itself. Why?:

Is it your Geographical Location ?

Catalonia and the Basque Country have always been the two main entrances from Spain to France and then to Europe. Currently they have only two hits (Railway and Highway), to France and therefore to Europe. The north side of the Central Pyrenees (325 miles.). and a stretch of over 80 miles wide, which can reach the Autopista.Biarritz, Toulouse, Narbonne, are impassable for ecological reasons. decision of France.

When Spain is weak . Basque Country and Catalonia create problems, more serious, since these two approaches are most important and exclusiv

The case of Spain

The Second Spanish Republic and General Francisco Franco defenders of the Union of Spain.
During the Civil War (1936-1939). The Republic and General Franco fought against each other, in the battlefield .But both parties defended the Union of Spain. The Republic jailed the Separatists and Franco´s Regimen judged them and they were given a death penalty and executed by an armed soldiers group.

On June 22, 1969. Franco declared King Juan Carlos his succesor with an aim: The Spanish Unity.

On November 20, 1975. Franco Died at the Pardo Palace. Madrid. Having ruled Spain for 36 years at the helm of Authoritarian Regime. He was a strong advocate of theSpanish Unitity.

On December 27, 1978. King Juan Carlos , Franco's successor, encouraged and signed the 1978 Constitution, which states in Chapter 2:

"The indissoluble Unity of the Spanish Nation common and undivisible homeland of all Spanish"

King Juan Carlos I , Former Spaniards Prime Minister Adolfo Suárez, José María Aznar,J.L. Rodriguez Zapatero. The current Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy and the Minister for Education Jose Ignacio Wert, wrecked the Spanish Unity.

And they have also made the Catalan language compulsory for children, and  in official institutions.

When Catalonia creates problems separatism. The Basque country is reaping the rewards: getting Europe to approve the "Basque Cupo" (special tax).

When the Basque Country creates problems, Catalonia gains  political and economical advantages :"Special Statute", and so on ...

They are very well coordinated. If the Separatists Basques and Catalans gain the Independencem this will mean that we build two Troys. Catalonia (Troy1), and the Basque Country (Troy2), and Spain will be isolated from France and Europe.

The  Pyrenees Mountain Range  324 Mile, To Highway Biarritz, Toulouse, Narbonne, an area of 90 Km., wide is inaccessible for ecological reasons.

If Catalonia and Basque Country gains a larger degree of sovereignity or the independence. Spain will be like  Bolivia, the poorest country in South America, cut off and  isolated from the sea in 1903 by loosing 200 kilometers of coast, nou Chile.

Today, in year 2013 , Spain is a divided Nation unequal before the law, with fiscal privileges and imposing the regional language over spanish language in school, Private and Official Intitutions. Catalonian Leaders despise the rest of Spaniards. Spain has 46 millions inhabitants with more jobless than any other country in the rest of Europe.

The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

Spain . 75 years ago the spanish the civil war, took place the rebels under the command of General Franco fought against the Second Republic. Spanish Unity, was defended by the Second Republic and Franco, against the Basque and Catalan separatists. General Batet in Catalonia imprisoned the President Lluis Campanys who had proclaimed the Catalan Goverment.

Green. General Franco Yellow Republic

Map of Spain in July 1936

General Franco ordered  General Batet to be tried and executed and Lluis Campanys by separatist. Rich against Poor, The political forces of the Republic killed  over 4,000 priests and bishops .... In 1936 Spain had 23 million, during the war, 500,000 people died, over 200,000 were killed on both sides, without trial, half each side

Francisco Franco Champion of the United Spain. (1936-1975)
King Juan Carlos I divided Spain with the Constitution  1975 

King Juan Carlos and Prime Prime Minister Adolfo Suarez. (1976-1981) 1st Duke of Suárez, Grandee of Spain.
General Batet y Lluis Campanys

Campanys Lluis. The President of the  Catalan Goverment and General Batet, Republican, were tried, imprisoned and shot by General Franco.

Also in Catalonia, General Godet was killed by a supporter of Franco. (1882-1940)

Domingo Batet Mestres (Tarragona, August 30, 1872 - Burgos, February 18, 1937) General Batet, Lluis Campanys imprisioned  and were both  shot by General Franco.

The Paracuellos execution had never been clarifay in Republican Madrid, carried out in a systematic and organized way, transfering 34 diferents groups of prissioners, Between November 4 to December 7, 1936 more than 4,000 people died.

Russian Archives tell us about the last part of this crime

Mikhail Koltsov a journalist, secret agent  under to the direct orders of Stalin, at a meeting in Madrid (1936), who were present: General Jose Miaja Menant, Chairman of the Board of Defense. Santiago Carrillo, Minister of Public Order and Second Serrano Poncela. I ordered the shooting of the "fifth column".

General Miaja y Santiago Carrillo

General Jose Miaja Menant (Oviedo, April 20, 1878-Mexico Cty January 14, 1958 was a Spanish military  officee and also a Chairman of the Board of defense in Madrid.

The Act was signed by General Miaja, Santiago Carrillo and Segundo Serrano Poncela. This is stated in the archives in Russia. The groups of prisoners were only signed by Serrano Poncela. This  is a crime without culprits.

José Santiago Carrillo Solares ( Gijón, January 18,1915-Madrid, September18, 2012) was a spansh politician  Regional Minister of the Interior at that time.


Spain has been divided since 1975 and harassed by Catalonia and the Basque Country

The main problem in Spain has been  since 1640 is the Territorial Crisis by Catalans and the Basques have the only two rout of access, Road and Railway, from Spain to France. This is their strength.

Spain is separated from France by 324 Mile, of the Pyrenees Mountains Range, plus a strip which is parallel to the Mountains and reached the  Biarritz, Toulouse. Narbonne, Highway, and is more than 90 Mile wide.

The more political or fiscal privileges they are given, the more they want, they are insatiable.
The two roads are the Force of Catalonia and the Basque Country on the Rest of Spain.

The solution is to give these two regions similar rights and duties which like other Spanish regions, and to speak a common language. In Spain. Spanish. Following same direction as France an the United States ...

In 1952 France divided Normandy into two regions: Upper Normandy Capital Rouen and Lower Normandy Capital Caen.   French Official Language.

 In 1780, the United State divided the 13 colonies into 23 states. In 1861 the State of Virginia was divided into West Virgina, Capital Charleston and Virginia Capital Richmond. Virginia it was 25 % national territory of the colonies and it had 500.000 inhabitants of three millions  that the Colonies had at this time, and noy is the 25th of the current 50. It was the first English-speaking colony.

Spain in 2014, Catalonia should be divided into two regions. West Catalonia: Lleida and Tarragona and East: Catalonia (Barcelona Lleida). And the official  Spanish.
Hopefully someone in Spain has the clarity of thought like Abraham Lincoln or the mythological hero Odysseus during the Taking of Troy and the end the Troy 1 and Troy 2 Catalonia and the Basque Country. If Spain do not end up like Bolivia which lost its access to the sea to Chile in 1903  Chile fought to Bolivia from 1873 until 1893, ten year later, in 1903 they signed the treaty that Bolivia gave Chile 200 Km. of coast line and 200.000 square kilomiters. Bolivia today is the pourest country in South America.

United state monuments. Washington D.C.
United State, strong country when becoming USA from the 13 colonies.
Evolutions of the 13 colonies in 1776, (3 millions inhabitans) to the state Confederations ( 15 of november 1977) and the Federal State, by the Constitution of USA (21 of june 1788). Currently in year 2013, USA has 310 millions inhabitants.

Photography Julian Garcia-Notario Nuño before the statue of Abraham Lincoln. August 17, 2012

The Great Emancipator


Beneath these words, the 16th President of the United States-the Great Emancipator and preserver of the nation during the Civil War-sits inmortalized in marble. As an enduring symbol of freedom, the Lincoln Memorial atracts anyone who seeks inspiration and hope.

Monument to George Washington. Build (1848-1888). In 1884 it became the highest structure in the world until Eiffel Tower was build in 1889. Located in Washington Mall. in front of MONUMENT MOTIVATION George Washington was: First in war-first in peace-and first in the hearts of his countrymen

Spain monuments. Madrid. Valley of fallen

Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos, view from the esplanade

Posted by julián García-Notario Nuño www.troyacataluñ


Is the first and only gay U.S. president?

Although other presidents have been targeted by intrigues about his sexuality, this rumor may have been true

James Buchanan was the president of the country (1857-1861), most remembered for its inefficiency to the economic crisis, fought with a large segment of the Democratic Party (he represented) because of its support of slavery, their ineffectiveness during the years before the American Civil War in which he was one of those most responsible for causing the secession war broke three weeks after leaving office or the tragic inauguration party in which 36 people died because of the legionella.

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United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The United States of America (USA or U.S.A.), commonly called the United States( US or U.S.) and America, is a federal republic consisting of fifty states and a ...
History of the United States - ‎Demographics of the United - ‎Federal district - ‎ State

Uncle Tom's Cabin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia's_Cabin
Language, English .... An engraving of Harriet Beecher Stowe from 1872, based on an oil painting by Alonzo Chappel ... Stowe's novel lent its name to Henson's home- Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site, near Dresden, Canada-which since the ...

Abolitionism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ir a Growth of the movement - William Wilberforce (1759-1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave ...
Great Britain - ‎France - ‎Moldavia and Wallachia - ‎ In the Americas

Ulysses S . Grant - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ulysses S . Grant (April 27, 1822 - July 23, 1885), born Hiram Ulysses Grant, was the general who many think won the American Civil War and later became the ...
Early Life - ‎Pre-presidency & Presidency - ‎Later life and death - ‎ References

Robert E . Lee - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Robert Edward Lee (1807 - 1870) was a Confederate States of America army general. He led the Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War, and ....

Sherman's March to the Sea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia's_March_to_the_Sea
Gen . William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army in the American Civil War. The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta, ...

Atlanta - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2011 population of 432,427. Atlanta is the cultural and ..

Virginia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Virginia officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state located in the South Atlantic region of the United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" ...
History of Virginia - ‎List of counties in Virginia - ‎University of Virginia - ‎ Danville

American Revolutionary War - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...
The American Revolutionary War was a war fought between Great Britain and the original 13 British colonies in America. The war took place from 1775 to 1783.

Articles of Confederation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles ofConfederation and ....Congress began to move for ratification of the Articles of Confederation in 1777:.

United States Constitution - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...
The United States Constitution is the highest law of the United States of America. It was put in writing on September 17, 1787 by the Constitutional Convention in ...
Articles of the Constitution - ‎Amendments - ‎Other pages - ‎ References

Francisco Franco - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish military leader and statesman who ruled as the dictator of Spain from 1936 until his death. He came to power ...
Generalissimo Francisco ... - ‎Carmen Franco, 1st Duchess ... - ‎ Spain - ‎Ferrol

Spain - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spain is a country in Southern Europe. It is in the Iberian Peninsula near Portugal and Gibraltar. France and the little country of Andorra are on its northeast side, ...
History of Spain - ‎16th and 17 century - ‎Religion - ‎ Geography of Spain

Valle de los Caídos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaídos
Main article: Basilica of the Holy Cross of the Valley of the Fallen ... (esplanade) with a spectacular view of the valley and the outskirts of Madrid in the distance.
Basilica, cross and abbey - ‎Valley of the Fallen - ‎Franco's tomb - ‎ Controversy

Spanish Constitution - Congreso de los Diputados
07/12/1978 - SPANISH CONSTITUTION. We, don Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, an- nounce to all those who may have knowledge of this: that the Cortes have ...

Juan Carlos I of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Juan Carlos I is the current King of Spain. General Francisco Franco named Juan Carlos as the next head of state in 1969. He became King on 22 November ...
List of Spanish monarchs - ‎Princess María de las ... - ‎ Ancestry of Juan Carlos I of ..

Adolfo Suárez - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaárez
Adolfo Suárez y González , 1st Duke of Suárez, Grandee of Spain, KOGF ... deSuárez" (Duke of Suárez), together with the title Grande de España (English: ...
Parents - ‎Life - ‎Family - ‎ Titles, styles, and honours

José Miaja - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaé_Miaja
Miaja.jpg. General Miaja, in 1936. Birth name, José Miaja Menant. Born, 20 April 1878. Oviedo,
Asturias, Spain. Died, January 14, 1954(1954-01-14) (aged 75) ...

Lluís Companys - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaís_Companys
... than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. ... Lluís Companys i Jover (Catalan pronunciation: [ʎuˈis kumˈpaɲs]) (June 21, ... 1931, from which was born the ERC political party; however, he was elected as ...
Early life - ‎Exile and death - ‎See also - ‎ References

Santiago Carrillo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Santiago Carrillo firmando en la Feria del Libro de Madrid en 2006.jpg ... Born in Gijón, Asturias province, Carrillo was the son of the prominent Socialist .... Englishedition: Eurocommunism and the State, Lawrence and Wishart, 1977, ISBN ...
Childhood and early youth - ‎Second Republic and Civil War - ‎ Exile

Paul Preston's "J'accuse" to Santiago Carrillo | In English | EL PAÍS
09/04/2013 - In English ... Many things have been written about Santiago Carrillo: some ... Carrillo was born in Gijón, Asturias in 1915 and experienced so ...

Alejo Vidal - Quadras Roca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alejo Vidal -Quadras Roca (born May 20, 1945 in Barcelona) is a Spanish Member of the European Parliament, and a radiation physicist. He was elected on the ...

Vidal-Quadras seeking action Guard C. .. Juan Carlos I of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia / wiki / Juan_Carlos_I_de_España

Torcuato Fernández - Miranda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaández-Miranda
Don Torcuato Fernández Miranda y Hevia, 1st Duke of Fernandez-Miranda, Grandee of Spain, KOGF (10 November 1915 - 19 June 1980) was a Spanish ...
Franco regime - ‎Leader in transition - ‎Democratic Spain - ‎ Marriage and issue

Torcuato Fernández -Miranda "Tribuna Libre / forum / torcuato-fernandez-miranda / Share 15/02/2013 - ABC | Enrique Fernandez-Miranda and Lozana | In 2015, one hundred years since the birth of Torcuato Fernández-Miranda and Hevia , ..
and Lozana Fernandez-Miranda, Enrique Asturias> Asturias >Gijon >Gijon > Gijon Enrique Fernandez-Miranda and Lozana, physician and politician, was born in Gijón (Asturias) on September 2, 1949. Duke of Fernandez-Miranda, the son of ...

Oriol Junqueras i Vies - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Oriol Junqueras i Vies is a Catalan historian and politician. He is the current mayor of Sant Vicenç dels Horts and has been the president of the Republican Left ...